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Tragic Facts About Elizabeth Short, The Black Dahlia

Tragic Facts About Elizabeth Short, The Black Dahlia


Some individuals see Elizabeth Brief as a real-life femme fatale from a movie noir thriller. She was a wannabe actress who walked the imply and harmful streets of 1940s LA, and she or he additionally had connections to some very harmful males. Sadly, like many ladies of movie noir, Brief had a brutal finish to her life—much more sadistic than most horror films. Her mindless assault by an unknown assailant created a media frenzy that actually stopped the nation in its tracks. However who was Elizabeth Brief? Let’s peel again the fiction and get some true info about Elizabeth Brief—AKA the Black Dahlia.


1. She Took A Stroll

On January 15, 1947, Betty Bersinger was strolling along with her younger daughter in an space of Los Angeles referred to as Leimert Park—which on the time was largely an undeveloped wasteland. She walked by a vacant lot in it when one thing shocked her. Somebody had thrown away an previous division retailer model. The model was truly in two items—separated on the waist.

As Bersinger and her three-year-old daughter walked nearer, she made a horrifying realization. The model was truly an actual particular person. Bersinger had no concept on the time, however the lifeless physique in two elements was Elizabeth Brief, and this homicide was about to turn out to be the case of the century.

2. She Was Quantity Three

Whereas most individuals contemplate the story of The Black Dahlia to be a quintessentially Los Angeles story, it truly began means over in Boston. Elizabeth Brief was quantity three in a quintet of daughters. She was born on July 29, 1924, to Cleo A Brief and his spouse Phoebe Could Sawyer. Brief’s father had an awesome concept to earn a living and invested and constructed his personal miniature golf programs.

Appears like a good suggestion, apart from one factor: he might by no means have anticipated what a horrible shock he was in for.

3. He Misplaced It All

When the inventory market crashed in 1929, Brief’s father misplaced every little thing he had. On the identical time, extravagances like taking part in mini golf turned much less fashionable, so his enterprise was additionally a bust. Cleo A Brief had a spouse and 5 children to feed, and he had no concept how he was going to do it. Despondent, he bought into his automotive and drove to the Charlestown Bridge.

4. He By no means Got here House

Brief’s father didn’t come dwelling that night time, or any night time after that. Once they discovered his deserted automotive by the bridge, they had been pressured to grapple with a disturbing risk. He’d purposely jumped off the bridge to finish his life. Sadly, this was an all too frequent prevalence within the years following the inventory market crash.

Brief’s mother was left to look after, feed, and lift 5 younger women all on her personal. Elizabeth Brief was simply six years previous on the time.

5. She Was Struck Down

Brief’s mom quickly bought a job as a bookkeeper with the intention to preserve her women fed and clothed, however luck was not on her facet. Elizabeth was instantly struck with each bronchial asthma and bronchitis. Her case was so critical that she required lung surgical procedure when she was 15 years previous. After the surgical procedure, the physician informed Mrs. Brief that her daughter wanted one thing that mother’s low-paying job in all probability couldn’t pay for: winters in a hotter local weather.

Mrs. Brief needed to do one thing—Elizabeth’s life trusted it.

6. She Lived A Double Life

Fortunately, Brief’s mom had household and a few associates in Florida that might put Brief up through the winter. That might at the very least deal with Brief’s well being issues. Residing in each Boston and Florida, nonetheless, gave Brief a really disjointed life. She suffered at college, and ultimately she dropped out in her sophomore 12 months. Her younger life appeared already headed for catastrophe—and a mysterious letter ready at her mom’s home was about to throw her a curve ball.

7. A Letter Modified Every thing

In 1942, an envelope arrived on the Brief family. It might change their lives without end. From the postmark, mother might see that the letter was from California and her curiosity was piqued—who did she know in California? When she opened the letter and began studying it, I’m certain her coronary heart skipped a beat. In any case, the letter had come from past the grave.

8. It Made No Sense

Brief’s mother stared on the letter and tried to make sense of it. Absolutely, there was some type of mistake. It was from her husband—the one who had jumped off the bridge after the inventory market crash. It turned out that he hadn’t jumped in any respect, however had faked his personal disappearance with the intention to begin a brand new debt-free life. He’d moved to California and he felt very, very responsible about leaving his household alone.

Mother had been elevating 5 daughters on her personal and was coping with Elizabeth’s well being considerations. Immediately, Mrs. Brief noticed the answer proper there in entrance of her.

9. She Went West

Elizabeth Brief was quickly on her technique to sunny Vallejo, California to dwell along with her father—and deal with her bronchitis. She hadn’t seen dad since she was six years previous, however she hoped they’d get alongside. Properly, she was in for an disagreeable shock. Earlier than lengthy, Brief was arguing along with her father, who labored at a close-by shipyard.

The association wouldn’t work in spite of everything, however Brief was not about to go away California behind so simply. She’d tasted the West Coast life-style and she or he wished extra. Sadly, it was this love for California that may result in her darkish finish.

10. She Jumped Ship

After a 12 months of battling it out along with her father, Brief determined to leap ship. She was simply 19 when she walked out the door, discovered a spot to dwell and bought herself a job. Not dangerous for a highschool dropout. Her job, working for a US Military Sergeant at an Air Pressure base, ended up being horrible—all for one twisted cause. Her boss abused her.

This deplorable scenario led Brief to rapidly depart city and she or he ended up in Santa Barbara. Sadly, there was simply extra bother in retailer for her there.

11. She Favored To Have A Drink

What younger particular person wouldn’t need, after a tough day’s work, to have a number of cool drinks with associates? Properly, as a result of Brief was simply 19 right now, having a drink meant that she broke the legislation. In 1943, officers detained her for underage consuming. The authorities in Santa Barbara noticed a younger girl who was not below any grownup supervision, so that they did one thing heartless.

They despatched her again to dwell along with her mother. Brief had gotten used to a certain quantity of independence, so she got here up with a plan.

12. She Fell For Him

Brief didn’t return to her mom’s dwelling, as a substitute she headed to Florida. Keep in mind WWII was heating up, and there have been military personnel all around the US right now. For a younger romantic girl, this was a bit like being a child in a sweet retailer. Good-looking males walked the streets in uniform and lived in concern of Uncle Sam sending them abroad.

Brief fell for an officer—and it bought critical quick.

13. She Stated Good-Bye

Brief’s new boyfriend was Main Matthew Gordon Jr: an Military Air Pressure officer coaching to move to Southeast Asia to battle for his nation. When his time got here, Brief tearfully stated goodbye. The 2 love birds promised they’d reconnect the second he bought again. Over the subsequent months, they exchanged letters, however one letter particularly made Brief nearly fall off her chair.

14. He Crashed

The letter that Brief obtained from Gordon contained some devastating information. He’d been in a aircraft crash in India. Fortunately, Gordon had survived the crash, however he wanted to heal within the hospital in India. It appeared that the crash had made Gordon do some soul-searching as a result of he ended the letter with one thing surprising: a proposal of marriage.

15. Her Life Would Be Good

Brief couldn’t get her response down on paper quick sufficient. She definitely did need to marry Main Matthew Michael Gordon Jr and she or he stated a lot in her letter. Now, all they needed to do was look ahead to Gordon to return to the states and her life can be good. When it got here to dwelling through the time of WWII, anticipating something was harmful—you by no means knew what might occur subsequent.

16. One other Letter, Extra Dangerous Information

Brief managed to maintain her spirits up whereas ready for Gordon to return. In August of 1945, a number of days earlier than the tip of WWII, she skilled a tragedy of merciless coincidence. Gordon was in one other aircraft crash. This time the younger officer was not so fortunate: he handed on August 10, 1945. Brief, after all, was a wreck. Her good life was not going to occur in spite of everything.

17. She Bought Pulled Again To LA

A 12 months after dropping Gordon, Brief left Florida and went to California. She was visiting one other Gordon: Lieutenant Joseph Gordon Fickling, whose station was in Lengthy Seashore. Brief ended up staying in California and never returning to Florida. She bought a job as a waitress and a room in a boarding home situated behind a nightclub on Hollywood Boulevard.

Sure, she was waitressing—however she had greater goals than that.

18. She Was One Of Many

Brief’s boarding home was behind the Florentine Gardens—a nightclub owned by Mark Hansen. Brief’s roommate was Ann Toth, who was additionally Hansen’s girlfriend. Some say that Brief was additionally linked to Hansen romantically—which might make dwelling with Toth just a little awkward. It appeared that Hansen was the kind of man who had a number of girlfriends all the time.

As we’ll quickly see, that Hansen was not the kind of man Brief ought to have trusted.

19. She Bought Critical

It was throughout this time in Los Angeles that Elizabeth Brief turned extra decided to begin a profession in present enterprise. She had spoken to somebody about showing as an additional in a film. She had additionally talked Hansen into letting her carry out at his nightclub. Like different younger ladies hanging round Hollywood, she had a one in one million probability of succeeding.

There have been so many tales of younger starlets getting their massive break, so why wouldn’t Brief consider she had an opportunity? Sadly, there was nothing however horror awaiting her.

20. She Acted Suspiciously

Brief was in relentless pursuit of a profession in present enterprise, however there was one thing else happening in her life—one thing way more mysterious. Toth stated that Brief typically made furtive calls from the telephone line at Florentine Gardens, Hansen’s nightclub. She additionally seen that Brief would solely do that when Hansen wasn’t round.

Toth was very suspicious of the telephone calls, and sooner or later she came upon precisely who Brief was calling.

21. He Had Connections

Toth came upon that Brief was secretly calling a person named Maurice Clement, who labored for Columbia Studios. This was seemingly the person who was getting Brief a job as an additional. However there was one thing else right here. Positive, Clement labored within the film enterprise, however he additionally had ties to gangs. His circle of associates included Homicide Inc founder Bugsy Siegal and boxer Mickey Cohen—each recognized for being brutal of their many illicit dealings.

If this wasn’t dangerous sufficient, Clement additionally labored with a infamous girl named Brenda Allen.

22. She Wanted A Job

Brief clearly knew Maurice Clement—she referred to as him from the Florentine Nightclub on a couple of event. Properly, Clement was additionally pleasant with Brenda Allen, who was a madam to the mob. Allen was supplying ladies to a harmful class of individuals, and but her boyfriend was from one other space altogether: he was a Sergeant of the LAPD.

Was Brief contacting Clement as a result of she was working—or wished to work—for Allen? Clearly Brief wanted cash to remain in LA, however would she be prepared to promote her physique to the mob?

23. She Had Thriller Company

For some cause, Brief left the residence she shared with Toth and quickly stayed with Dorothy French. On January 2, 1947, Brief despatched a letter to Toth and requested her for some cash. French stated that a number of days after Brief despatched the letter, some males got here to her home in search of Brief. French seen that Brief was very anxious because the automotive pulled up in entrance of her dwelling.

Brief spoke to the 2 mysterious males, however French was too scared to satisfy them. However that’s not essentially the most disturbing half. After the dialog, Brief was visibly shaken.

24. She Had A Weekend Tryst

In early January 1947, Brief started an affair with Robert Manley, who his associates referred to as “Pink”. His title might have been Manley, however he was hardly a gentleman. You see, Manley already had a spouse, and was seeing Brief on the facet. The 2 wished to get away from the town—and the prospect of getting caught—so that they went for a brief go to to San Diego.

When the journey was over, Manley drove Brief again to LA. As soon as they arrived, Brief informed him to drop her off on the Biltmore Lodge. Brief stated she had a plan to satisfy her sister, who was visiting from Boston, on the lodge. Sadly, she’d meet her darkish destiny as a substitute.

25. She Disappeared

As soon as she bought into the Biltmore Lodge, employees there stated they noticed somebody who adopted Brief’s description within the foyer and on the phone. A short while later, witnesses swear they noticed her on the Crown Grill Cocktail Lounge, situated a number of blocks from the Biltmore. And that’s when the clues dry up. Nobody is aware of what occurred to Brief after that.

Or at the very least, nobody is admitting they know.

26. A Ugly Sight

The following time anybody admits to seeing Brief was the mom along with her little one who found her lifeless physique within the vacant lot. In addition to being minimize in half, there have been every kind of wounds on Brief’s physique. Somebody had additionally drained all of Brief’s blood and brought care to wipe her clear afterward with gasoline. Calling the scene ugly can be the understatement of the century.

However how had Brief ended up on this state? The place had she gone after witnesses noticed her on the Crown Grill Cocktail Lounge?

27. She Was Already On File

After all, it took some time for the authorities to establish the physique as belonging to Brief. It did, nonetheless, take much less time due to Brief’s earlier run in with the legislation regarding her underage consuming. Due to this altercation, Brief’s fingerprints had been on file, so she was ultimately recognized. For some unusual cause, a newspaper discovered Brief’s id even earlier than Brief’s mom did.

This weird state of affairs led to a prank that was particularly evil.

28. They Devised A Plot

William Randolph Hearst printed the Los Angeles Examiner and he had a fame for sensationalizing new tales—and utilizing tips to be the primary to interrupt a narrative. When the newspaper realized they knew the id of the sufferer even earlier than the subsequent of kin, they devised a sinister plot. They wished to get extra information about Brief than another newspaper had.

They wrote a letter to Brief’s mom—and never a phrase of it was true.

29. It Was A Merciless Trick

Somebody on employees on the Los Angeles Examiner wrote a letter to Phoebe Brief that withheld the information about her daughter’s horrible demise. As a substitute, they performed an extremely merciless trick. They claimed that Elizabeth Brief had gained a magnificence contest. Phoebe Brief was, after all, thrilled and stuffed the reporter’s ear with tidbits of details about her beautiful daughter.

As soon as they’d their enjoyable—and bought their info—they informed Phoebe the horrifying reality. Sadly, the newspaper wasn’t by with terrorizing Phoebe Brief.

30. They Stored Her Away

The following trick the Los Angeles Examiner performed on Phoebe Brief was to supply to pay her flight so she might assist detectives examine Brief’s homicide. Brief accepted the supply and got here out to LA on the newspaper’s dime. The newspaper, nonetheless, had a chilling motive. They really stored Brief away from the detectives engaged on the case and different newspapers.

Hearst and his minions would do something they might to take care of management over the case and ensure they had been those taking advantage of this horrible incident.

31. They Gave Her A Identify

The Los Angeles Examiner and the Los Angeles Herald-Specific—each owned by Hearst—felt they’d possession of the story round Brief’s homicide. Collectively they determined the easiest way to drive the narrative of the story with the intention to take advantage of cash from headlines. They depicted Elizabeth Brief as a girl who “prowled Hollywood Boulevard” sporting revealing garments.

They referred to as her an adventuress—which led to Brief’s nickname: the Black Dahlia.

32. Her Identify Is A Thriller

A 12 months earlier than Brief’s homicide, there was a preferred movie referred to as The Blue Dahlia. Veronica Lake and Doris Dowling play typical noir seductresses and the occasions of the movie focus on a nightclub referred to as the Blue Dahlia. Since Brief was a nightclub goer and apparently wore provocative clothes—typically black—she bought the nickname.

However who considered it first? Nobody is aware of. Some even speculate the title got here from Brief’s personal associates—earlier than she turned a media sensation. The general public took to the nickname like a moth to a flame. They had been hungry for any information about The Black Dahlia and the one who had taken her life.

33. He Confessed

About one week after the invention of Brief’s physique, the Examiner obtained a telephone name congratulating them on how they had been protecting the case. On the finish of the decision, the caller made an announcement that may make anybody’s blood run chilly. He claimed to be the particular person behind the homicide. He additionally stated that he deliberate on giving himself as much as authorities, however not earlier than he would ship some souvenirs of Brief to the newspaper.

Was it that straightforward? Was the case actually solved already?

34. It Was Apparent

The unnamed man actually did ship a bundle, but it surely didn’t get to the newspaper. The US postal service stopped a suspicious envelope on January 24 as a result of the sender had written the tackle in minimize out letters. And there was one thing else that made the letter standout as a clue. It stated on the surface of the envelope: “Right here is Dahlia’s belongings letter to comply with”.

You didn’t have to be Sherlock Holmes to know this bundle was vital to the Black Dahlia case—however what was in it?

35. It Was The Actual Factor

Detectives ultimately bought their fingers on the manila envelope and tore it open. Probably they thought the bundle was a hoax by somebody with a twisted humorousness. Nonetheless, once they noticed the contents, they knew it was one thing way more sinister. Inside had been images of Brief, her start certificates and a few enterprise playing cards. Extra surprisingly, the sender had included an tackle e book with a reputation clearly embossed on the duvet: Mark Hansen.

Keep in mind Hansen? He was Brief’s lover, and her greatest buddy’s lover as nicely. Possibly this was Hansen’s means of turning himself in. In that case, the case can be straightforward to resolve.

36. It Had Been Wiped Clear

Mark Hansen’s title on the duvet of the tackle e book was already fairly incriminating, however the detectives wished proof that it was Hansen who had truly despatched the parcel. To do that, they wanted fingerprints. Sadly, the sender of the bundle had wiped all of the contents clear with gasoline—a lot as he’d achieved with Brief’s physique.

The contents had been freed from fingerprints. The envelope, nonetheless, was not.

37. They Had Proof

Consultants lifted a number of fingerprints from the envelope and despatched them to the FBI—they had been those who might check them, give you a match, and hopefully clear up this case. The FBI obtained the bundle containing the fingerprint samples and began their process. Besides as soon as they began they realized one thing devastating. Someway, the fingerprints had been now unreadable.

One thing—or somebody—had tampered with the one proof they needed to convict Hansen.

38. A Stunning Discovery

On the identical day because the bundle arrived on the Examiner, there was a shocking discovery. It occurred about two kilometers (three miles) from the place the girl and her daughter had first found Brief’s physique. An unidentified particular person had discovered a purse and a single black suede shoe. Once more, this was one other potential for fingerprints.

Sadly, the killer had been intelligent once more: he—or she—had wiped each objects with gasoline. Investigators, nonetheless, nonetheless wished to speak to Hansen and see if he had any involvement within the case.

39. He Had A Motive

Though there had been no fingerprints to incriminate Hansen, they nonetheless had his title on the tackle e book mailed to the newspaper. So, when the shoe and purse surfaced, they confirmed them to Hansen. He confirmed that they belonged to Brief. Toth, Brief’s roommate, spoke up and stated that lately, Brief had rejected Hansen when he made romantic strikes on her.

Toth thought this was a superb motive, and she or he wished the detectives to detain Hansen for her buddy’s homicide.

40. They Moved On

Apparently, Hansen had an hermetic alibi and the detectives let him go—both that, or Hansen had associates in excessive locations on the LAPD. However what about Manley? He was the final one to really have a dialog with Brief earlier than she disappeared. And the proof towards him was very convincing. She was his mistress, and he stated he’d dropped her off on the Biltmore.

However what if one thing else had actually occurred?

41. He Handed

Authorities introduced Manley in and rapidly hooked him as much as a polygraph to take a look at his story. Considered one of two issues was doable: Manley was telling the reality when he stated he was not accountable for Brief’s homicide, or he was an skilled at passing lie detector exams. Properly, he did cross, and detectives began to look elsewhere for the particular person accountable for Brief’s brutal demise.

42. They Searched For Clues

At this level within the investigation, the LAPD had a whopping 750 investigators engaged on the case, who had been tirelessly scouring LA for any proof. The investigators centered a lot of their search on storm drains round Los Angeles, and different locations across the L A River. They discovered nothing. With no hope in sight, they’d no selection however to attempt one thing else. One thing that confirmed how determined they actually had been.

43. They Wanted Assist

With the assist of a metropolis councilman, the LAPD posted a reward to assist them catch Brief’s attacker. A reward of $10,000 seems like a pittance now, however in 1946 it felt extra like $120,000. Absolutely, this could assist get some a lot wanted clues. Sadly, it solely resulted in a bunch of false confessions. Among the confessors ended up getting charged as what they’d achieved was an obstruction of justice.

Sadly, investigators had been nonetheless no nearer to fixing the case of the Black Dahlia.

44. A New Break

It had been almost a month for the reason that ugly discovery of Brief’s physique, however the case was nonetheless dominating the media. Headline writers had been getting increasingly determined for brand new info to maintain readers glued to their protection. They bought it on January 26 when a disturbing letter arrived on the Examiner. This letter was hand written—not manufactured from minimize out letters just like the others—however once more, it appeared like a confession. The author stated he would flip himself in on Wednesday, January 29.

45. They Waited Anxious

Detectives and officers waited anxiously on the location supplied by the letter author. The indicated time of his arrival got here after which handed. As a substitute of exhibiting up, the author of the letter despatched one other missive. The message within the envelope stated that he had modified his thoughts about turning himself in. The letter ended with a wierd sentence that stated that he had a justified cause for his actions towards Brief.

Who was this thriller letter author, and what did he imply by justified?

46. The Tales Continued

After the January 29 disappointment, the press continued to report every day about Brief. With no recent information, editors let their writers speculate about what had occurred to Brief for the six days between the final time anybody noticed her and the invention of her stays. The headlines and articles turned increasingly lurid, and the general public ate them up.

For some cause, the authorities didn’t attempt to put a cease to this sensationalist reporting. In actuality, they’d an excellent cause for wanting it to proceed.

47. They Stored Their Mouths Shut

The investigators engaged on the case had been permitting writers to go hog wild on reporting unsubstantiated info about Brief—as a result of it was all a part of a plan. They wished to maintain one thing secret from the general public: The true cause for Brief’s demise. With all of the loopy theories on the market, the general public had no concept {that a} cerebral hemorrhage had brought about Brief’s loss of life, seemingly from a critical knock to the top.

Solely the perpetrator would know this, and detectives wished to make use of the knowledge to check any future confessors. With no restraints, nonetheless, the media had a subject day.

48. A Ridiculous Leap Of Logic

One of many weirder speculations got here from a Herald-Specific reporter named Bevo Means. Means discovered {that a} stripper had informed the detectives that Brief favored to rile males up after which “depart them hanging dry”. This piece of data made Means make a ridiculous leap in logic. He claimed that Brief was a lesbian. Yeah, as a result of that’s what lesbians like doing in bars.

This concept garnered a number of headlines after which, fortunately, disappeared.

49. Was He A Physician?

One angle that detectives got here to late within the investigation was wanting on the very exact means Brief had been dissected. Couldn’t, then, the wrongdoer be a physician or surgeon? Following this logic, the LAPD collected names of all medical college students on the College of Southern California Medical College. Once more, nothing got here of this investigation—however why did they solely look into medical faculty college students? We’ll quickly see that the physician idea would floor once more…in a really. very weird means. 

50. He Acquired An Eerie {Photograph}

Steve Hodel, like many retired LAPD detectives, had an obsession with the Black Dahlia case though he was only a little one when it occurred. When his father handed, and Hodel collected his belongings, the ex-detective confronted a horrifying discovery. It was an image of Elizabeth Brief. This discovery led Hodel down a rabbit’s gap of an investigation.

Hodel got here to a very weird conclusion: his father had dedicated the Black Dahlia homicide. That was all Hodel wanted to get began on a e book.

51. He Misplaced It

Hodel stuffed his 2001 e book with convincing proof that his father, Dr. George Hodel, was the wrongdoer. The truth that a lot of the proof is circumstantial doesn’t make the e book any much less compelling. Some critics agreed with Hodel’s conclusion, others noticed it was only a technique to promote books. Hodel had definitely gained a number of consideration, after which he went just a little overboard.

In response to Hodel, his father was additionally accountable for the Zodiac murders. Okay Hodel—and the place was your dad when Kennedy was shot?

52. The Hypothesis Continues

In 2017, Piu Eatwell printed her e book Black Dahlia, Pink Rose. Eatwell affords up her personal suspect—a person named Leslie Dillon. Dillon was a bellhop, however he had additionally been a mortician assistant, which can give him details about find out how to minimize a physique in half. Dillon additionally had ties to Mark Hansen, the person whose title appeared on the tackle e book within the first confession bundle.

He additionally had a connection to Sergeant Fisin Brown, who was allegedly corrupt and will preserve Dillon from getting caught. The authorities had questioned and launched Dillon through the case—saying there wasn’t sufficient proof to convict. Dillon handed quietly in 1988.

53. We Could By no means Know

The case of the Black Dahlia stays unsolved. What we do know is that the media was accountable for mudding up the investigation with their weird claims, and wacko hypothesis utilizing circumstantial proof. So far as a cause for his or her unrelenting curiosity? Properly, right here’s a related truth: The one occasion that bought extra newspapers than the invention of Brief’s physique was when the allies gained WWII.

One final weird and heartless observe on this unhappy and grisly story: the bar at The Biltmore Lodge—the final place anybody noticed Brief alive—has a drink on their menu referred to as the Black Dahlia Cocktail.

Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Initially Revealed by – Byron Quick

Unique Supply – www.factinate.com

What do you think?

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Written by Harry Rosen

Harry Rosen is an accomplished explorer, photographer, creative director, speaker, and author.

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